| 于 2008-02-01 15:13 古怪客 发悄悄话 引用回复 编辑本帖 搜索发帖 复制本帖 收藏本帖 投诉该帖|
威望: 5 点
金币: 5 枚
贡献值: 0 点
好评度: 0 点
EV1 RIDES AGAIN!
Despite GM's worst efforts in collusion with Alan Lloyd, CARB and evil oil companies,
THE EV1 RIDES AGAIN! (video)
尽管通用汽车尽最大努力与Alan Lloyd, CARB和罪恶的油公司共谋，
RAV4-EV runs better than GM's mythical VOLT, and it's 10-year old technology! So what are we waiting for??
True Story of the EV1
There are a lot of mistakes and untruths in stories about the amazing electric EV1, the car that won the enduring love of so many former drivers in its brief 6 years of existence. The following is the true account, which you will be able to comment on for corrections or recollections, or for how your feelings were smashed when the beautiful EV1 cars were taken away and killed.
The EV1 originated from the GM Sunraycer, a solar-powered Electric car. Using a $3 million budget, a prototype all-electric battery-powered version was delivered by 1989.
Electric cars are much easier to design, having basically only one moving part. There is no clutch, gearing, oil changes, smog check, pistons, rings, valves, crankshaft, flywheel, rods, wrist pins, etc., etc.
The only complicated part of an EV is the motor controller, basically a bunch of electronic stuff that is cheap and lasts forever.
This prototype was driven into the L.A. Auto Show in 1990 by former GM Chairman Roger B. Smith (of "Roger and Me" fame), intended to prove that GM had good intentions about reducing emissions.
1990年，前通用汽车公司董事长罗杰B史密斯驾驶这款原型车出现在洛杉矶汽车展（ 盛传为"罗杰与我"） ，试图证明通用汽车有良好的意愿来减少废气排放量。
The California Air Resources Board ("CARB"), under pressure from the federal Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA"), was trying to reduce car emissions "by 10%" with a deadline of 2003.
加州空气资源委员会（以下简称" CARB " ） ，在来自联邦环境保护局（简称" EPA " ）压力下，试图在2003年减少"10%"的汽车排放。
The Zero Emission Vehicle ("ZEV") provided one easy, bureaucratic method for doing so: CARB simply "mandated" that "10%" of all cars sold by 2003 must be ZEV!
零排放车辆（ " ZEV " ） ，提供了一个简单官僚化的方法：CARB简单的"强制要求"至2003年 汽车销量的"10%"，必须是ZEV ！
For years, auto makers, their industry association (then the American Automobile Manufacturers Association, "AAMA"; later Japanese makers were allowed to join and it became the Auto Manufacturers Assn., "AMA"), with oil companies and their industry associations (Western States Petroleum, "WSP"), had been fighting any sort of increase in miles-per-gallon ("mpg") or decrease in refinery or auto emissions.
多年来，汽车制造商们，他们的行业协会（之前为“美国汽车制造商协会" ， "AAMA" ;后来日本厂商被允许加入，并成为"汽车制造商协会" ，或者"AMA" ） ，与油公司和其行业协会（西方国家的石油，"WSP" ） ，一直在采用所有措施来增加每加仑行驶英里数（ " mpg " ） ，或减少炼油厂、汽车排出的废气。
CARB now, it seemed, had the facts required to force GM to produce the EV1, and to force other car makers to follow with other ZEV.
CARB is in a weak legal position, because interstate commerce is regulated by the federal government, not the states, and the only way CARB has power over autos would be under mandate by the EPA, which is charged with enforcing the federal Clean Air Act ("CAA").
现在看来，CARB需要迫使通用汽车生产EV1 ，并迫使其他汽车厂商以其他形式的ZEV跟进 。
CARB处于弱势的法律地位，因为州际事务是由联邦政府管控，而不是州府管控。而CARB唯一成功的路径，是由环保局对厂商施压。环保局负责执行联邦清洁空气法（ "CAA" ） 。
If the EPA chose not to enforce the CAA, then California would be off the hook, and could drop the ZEV mandate.
In effect, California is dependent on federal policies for any leverage over auto companies.
This proved fatal to the ZEV mandate.
如果环保局选择不执行联邦清洁空气法（ "CAA" ），那么加州将摆脱困境，并可能放弃ZEV"强制要求"。
Each two years, a review was held by CARB of the ZEV mandate, and auto makers' progress toward their ZEV targets. Instead of progress, auto and oil industry groups testified that the goal was unreachable, impossible, and that no one wanted an Electric car like the EV1.
In 1994, they engaged a public relations firm run by Joe Cerrell to fight the ZEV mandate. A letter writing campaign, bused-in retirees, focus groups, and other tricks were used to try to derail the ZEV mandate.
After years of acrimony, CARB and the AMA reached, in 1996, a Memorandum of Agreement ("MOA") which seemed to be an amicable solution. Unfortunately, this MOA was kept secret from the public, which was unable to review it.
1996年，经过多年的舆论攻击，CARB和AMA达成一份协议备忘录（简称"MOA" ） ，似乎是一个圆满的解决方案。不幸的是，这协议备忘录一直对公众秘而不宣，无法予以审查。
As events proved, the AMA had a couple of nasty surprises in store for CARB. First, one ploy to weaken the Mandate was the idea of trading off pure ZEV production for hybrids, and giving "PZEV" (partial ZEV credit) for better gas mileage. This led to an injunction since it infringes on the federal government's sole power to regulate MPG and CAFE standards. In the aftermath, auto makers used the hiatus to dismantle their battery ZEV programs and crush the EVs. Thus, CARB should have resisted oillie pressures, and stuck to requiring ZEV production. Their conciliation proved a weakness. The second shock was revealed at the CARB 2000 ZEV review: the MOA, contrary to the ideas of CARB, did not commit the AMA to a "good faith effort" to build a market. Rather, it only committed them to put out a certain number of ZEV cars for a certain number of years. The fate of the ZEV was not spelled out in the MOA:
事实证明，AMA给CARB带来了好一些的惊诧。第一，一个削弱这项“强制要求”的伎俩，是用混合燃料替代纯ZEV，并让“部分零排放车辆”" PZEV " 更好利用汽油。因为它侵犯了联邦政府的唯一权力，这导致了一项禁制令，以规管MPG和CAFE标准。后果是，汽车制造商们利用法律漏洞撤销电池ZEV项目，并粉碎了电动车。这样，CARB本应抵制油公司的压力，并坚持要求生产ZEV。其改变证明CARB软弱。第二次打击，在CARB的2000年zev检讨：MOA，与CARB思路背道而驰的文件，没有迫使AMA以"善意的努力 "建立市场。相反，它仅迫使他们在确定时段内生产出一定数量的ZEV车。MOA没有列明ZEV的命运
CARB staff thought the ZEV program would expand, and ZEV numbers on the road would increase; while AMA intended, and the MOA text permitted, the ZEV to be taken back and crushed after the demonstration period ended.
This is why GM, Honda, Ford, Nissan and, for a while, Toyota were able to keep control of the ZEV and not sell to the public (their bete noir!) and were able to get away with never offering their ZEV for sale. It was only Toyota, from Mar. to Nov. 2002, which offered the last 328 Toyota RAV4-EV for sale to the general public.
Only Toyota honorably sold a production EV on the free market, without trick or artifice, although there were only 328 to sell. The gas RAV4-EV had undergone two design changes by 2002, so any further production, beyond the 328 sold, would need a complete re-design of the RAV4-EV's 500 EV-specific parts. Toyota abruptly cancelled the RAV4-EV sale, stopped taking deposits, and spent months finding the parts and car bodies to fullfill unexpectedly heavy orders. All orders were filled, but it took a while.
EV1 wait anxiously for ABC news crew to publicize the danger, but it was in vain. Not even the news could save them from being destroyed. In the background, dozens of EV1 drivers do their best to try to save their beloved cars.
GM only leased the EV1 under special conditions that removed the purchase option. If you didn't sign the lease, you didn't get the car: as one Honda Honcho stated, "...they don't care whether you take it or not, they are losing money on each one...".
通用汽车在EV1的租用合同中制定了不能购买的条件。如果不签订该条款，你不能得到汽车。一个本田老板指出， " … …他们不关心你是否要购买，他们是对每一个用户都亏本做生意… … " 。
In 1997, GM released the first of two "builds" totaling about 650 1997 EV1. Originally powered by Delco (now Delphi) lead-acid batteries, they only had a 60-70 mile range and the battery packs often proved defective. After 1998, the defective Delco packs were gradually "upgraded" to Panasonic lead-acid batteries, which increased the range to 110 miles and never failed. While peppy, there was an alarming sway under heavy acceleration, the windshield seals leaked into the dashboard electronics, and the windshield tensioning led to persistent windshield blowouts. These leases had "unlimited miles", but that didn't do much good since the cheap Delco batteries kept breaking down.
1997年，通用汽车公司发布了第一款650 1997 EV1 。由delco （现为德尔福）提供铅酸蓄电池。这些铅蓄电池只能维持60-70英里的里程，而且电池组经常出现缺陷。 1998年以后，有缺陷的delco电池被松下的铅酸蓄电池替代，里程可增加到110英里，而且从未低于该数值。急加速之下有一种令人震惊的摆动，挡风玻璃与电子仪表板之间密封不好，挡风玻璃的压力导致持续性风躁。租约虽然是"不限里程"的 ，但这样也没用，因为廉价delco电池不断坏掉。
On Mar. 2, 2000, GM issued a "voluntary recall" of ALL 1997 EV1, claiming that the 1997 EV1 had design flaws, one of which could lead to fires under certain conditions. This was an underbuilt Magnecharger input port, which needed an upgrade that affected all the charging electronics. After 14 months, GM re-released the "upgraded" 1997 EV1 back to their original lessees, this time under modified two-year leases that did not include unlimited mileage. All the "non-upgraded" EV1 were destroyed, and crushed. Just when the EV1 really could travel 200 miles per day with the new Panasonic batteries, this change now billed extra miles at 35 cents per mile.
2000年3月2日，通用汽车公司发表"自愿召回"，召回所有1997年的EV1, ，称1997年EV1设计上有缺陷，在一定的条件下有可能会导致火灾。问题在于一个影响到所有充电电子产品的underbuilt magnecharger输入端口，需要升级。所有"没升级"的EV1被摧毁，并粉碎。经过14个月，通用汽车公司重新发布了"升级"的 1997年EV1返回自己的原承租人，这个时候，改为期限两年的契约中对行驶里程有限制。EV1采用了新的松下电池后，可以每天行驶200英里，如果超过这个行程，租用着每英里需要额外支付35美分。
All of these 1997 EV1 found lessees; none was unclaimed. Those EV1 drivers who lost their "non-upgraded" EV1 were put at the top of the list for getting a 1999 Nickel Metal Hydride ("NiMH", 160 mile range) model, when and if they were ever released.
所有1997年版EV1都被租出，没有一辆没有人要。而那些失去了他们原本租用的"没升级" EV1d的驾驶者，则被优先考虑，可以优先获得1999年版镍金属氢化物车型（简称"镍氢电池" ， 行程范围160英里），如果镍氢电池车型被生产出来。
GM hinted that they were unable to produce the EV1 with NiMH batteries, which is the reason they released it originally in 1997 with lead-acid batteries. The Impact prototype was crammed with lead-acid batteries in a battery "T" shaped tunnel, which was difficult to ventilate. Putting NiMH batteries into this tunnel was a design disaster. What was needed was a redesign, putting the NiMH batteries under the EV (as Honda and Toyota had done). Unwilling to change from the original design, GM just added a cooling system that used up a lot of energy.
通用汽车暗示说，他们无法生产镍氢电池EV1，所以他们1997年生产了铅蓄电池EV1。原型车是在放置电池的" T "形空间中塞满铅酸电池的，这导致难以通风。把镍氢电池塞到这空间是不可能的。如果需要把镍氢电池作为电动汽车的蓄电部分，则需要重新设计（本田和丰田就是这么做的）。通用汽车公司不愿改变原始设计，在原型上只增加了一个冷却系统，却进一步耗掉了很多的能量。
Putting the lie to the claim that NiMH was not usable, Toyota designed and released a ZEV version of its then-new 1996-99 RAV4 which used NiMH batteries, and Honda released a version of its CRX called the Honda EV Plus which also used NiMH batteries. By starting with existing gasoline-powered vehicles, design and production costs were minimized; also, a simpler permanent magnet brushless motor was used, and, most importantly, the NiMH batteries were deployed in a tray under the floorboard. This aided cooling, and also, it turned out, was beneficial for the weights-and-balance and strength analyses. No such EV ever turned over, and the battery pack provided a natural "crush zone" in collisions.
These Japanese EVs were the first production EVs with range over 120 miles on a charge, thanks to the more powerful, longer-lasting, and more reliable NiMH batteries. Toyota, recognizing the importance of batteries, had formed an alliance with Matsushita (Panasonic) called "PEVE", which developed the EV-95 NiMH battery, the most-researched, most-powerful, most-tested, and the only successful battery that lasts longer than the life of the vehicle, perhaps over 200,000 miles. CARB recognized this in a 2000 position paper resulting from the Battery Technology Assessment Workshop that put an upper cap on NiMH costs at $350/kWh, or at most $12,000 for a typical 30 kWh 770 lb. NiMH battery pack. This amortizes out to no more than 6 cents per mile, less if the 90 lbs. of Nickel metal is recovered when the batteries are scrapped.
多亏了功能更强大、持续时间更长、更可靠的镍氢电池，这些日本电动车成为第一批可批量生产的一次充电行程超过120英里的电动车。丰田认识电池的重要性，与松下电器（松下）组成了一个联盟，所谓的" PEVE " ，来发展EV-95镍氢充电电池。这种电池，是研究能力所及，最强大，最能经受检验，唯一成功的电池，电池本身的使用时间会比汽车使用时间更加长，也许超过20万英里。CARB认识到这一点，在2000年的立场文件——电池技术评估研讨——中，为镍氢电池成本设定了一个上限，30千瓦时770磅的镍氢充电电池组为，成本为$350/ kWh ，或至多总共$12,000。如果不足90磅，费用平摊下来，每英里不超过6美分，而且镍金属属于可回收金属，如果这些电池报废回收，成本还会更加低。
This might have been intended as a mild slap in the face of GM, which had gotten them into this trouble in the first place. Essentially, Honda and Toyota were faithfully trying to fulfill the letter of the ZEV mandate, which might have embarrassed GM if it were capable of embarrassment.
To add insult to injury for GM, the Honda and Toyota offerings were issued for $499/month, less money than the $599 lease cost of the EV1, which had less powerful, defective batteries. GM was forced to lower its lease cost.
The most successful EV ever made, the Toyota RAV4-EV on the right, is still active in California in fleet and individual use, still running on the original pre-2002 Nickel Metal Hydride batteries and still retaining a range over 100 miles. All the other EVs produced under the prodding of the ZEV Mandate, including the 1997 EV1 on the left, were NEVER SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE, and all have been destroyed by permission of CARB when, in March, 2003, CARB surrendered to the petroleum industry and the Bush regime.
Only three (3) CARB Commissioners voted to preserve these EVs.
Those voting to kill the EV1 were Chair Alan Lloyd and 7 other Commissioners.
只有在三（ 3 ）位CARB的委员投票维持这些电动车。
那些投票杀死EV1的人有主席 艾伦劳埃德Alan Lloyd和其他7个委员。
The 1999 EV1 was delayed, GM stated, by a cooling issue. The original EV1 was designed for lead-acid batteries, which were more heat-resistant than the much more powerful Nickel Metal Hydrid batteries used in the 1990 Impact.
Finally, in Dec., 1999, under pressure from CARB's Jan. 1, 2000 deadline, GM released about 200 1999 EV1 with NiMH batteries. They proved to have a 160 mile range, and never failed. In addition, GM solved some of the flaws in the 1997 version, removing the sway, new seals, etc.
As one EV1 driver, the late Mr. Don Devlin, happily exclaimed, "...Its a sensation...Huge congratulations ... A revolution in ... range..."
已故的Mr. Don Devlin作为一个EV1司机，兴高采烈地叹道， " … …这是一个轰动...热烈的祝贺… …一个革命...… … "
All the 465 1999 NiMH EV1 which were made available found happy lessees. None ever went unwanted, none ever had problems. All were mourned when they were abruptly crushed by GM.
No more were ever built after 1998. GM had dismantled the EV1 supplier and manufacturing plant in 1998, it was reported by GM insiders; the only question was who would be allowed to lease the already-built EV1. Over the next 18 months, the remaining 200-odd 1999 EV1 were released, a few at a time, to selected lessees, mostly high-profile celebrities and politicians.
There was never a time when an EV1 could not find a willing lessee.
In 1999, ex-Governor Davis appointed Alan Lloyd, a fuel cell advocate and enemy of Battery EVs ("BEV"), to the position of Chair of CARB. CARB gradually weakened and then withdrew the BEV component of the ZEV mandate (it was existing EVs that were killed: the ZEV mandate itself is nominally still in force, but currently "inoperative" so far as actually doing anything).
1999年，前任州长Davis任命Alan Lloyd，一个燃料电池的倡导者和电池电动汽车的敌对者，为CARB主席。CARB不再强硬，然后撤回ZEV “强制要求”，导致电池电动汽车的法令（这是电动车被杀害原因：ZEV“强制要求”本身名义上仍然生效，但现在"无法有效"。截至目前为止，实际上什么也没有做） 。
With the 2000 seizure of power by oil politicians and the ascension of Andy Card, GM's chief lobbyist against ZEV Mandate, federal EPA policies were modified and CARB's ability to affect AMA policy and production diminished. At meetings, AMA execs just stood with arms folded, refuseniks.
2000年石油政客和Andy Card的阿森松夺取政权，通用汽车公司的首席说客反对ZEV “强制要求”，联邦环保局对政策进行了修改，CARB影响AMA政策和产品的能力有所减少。在会议上，AMA高管只是袖手旁观。
In March and April 2003, CARB Chair Alan Lloyd presided over postponing the ZEV mandate to 2018, "back-ending" compliance and relying upon Hydrogen Fuel Cell cars which would be much more expensive and would require extensive research over 15 years.
2003年3月4月，CARB主席Alan Lloyd推迟ZEV “强制要求”到2018年， "结局"是转而寻求氢燃料电池车，这更为昂贵，并需要超过15年的大量研究工作。
No one can explain why Lloyd considered BEV "too expensive" but why the proposed 15 years of research into a new infrastructure and technology, less promising than Compressed Natural Gas, would be "practical".
没有人能够解释为什么Lloyd认为电池EV "太昂贵" ，为什么反而建议用15多年的研究去进入一个全新的基础设施和技术领域，对比"实用"的压缩天然气，这更加没谱。
The batteries exist, the cars existed: the failure was CARB.
The EV1 were trucked to Mesa, AZ, stripped of tires and batteries, subjected to an 18" crush, then trucked back to smelters in California. It is estimated that GM spent about $600 to destroy each EV1 instead of selling them for $25,000 each.
EV1被用卡车运到Mesa, AZ，卸掉轮胎和电池，送进18 "粉碎机，然后用卡车运回加利福尼亚州冶炼厂，据估计，通用汽车为销毁EV1花费约每辆$600，而出售的话每辆可卖到$25,000。
Helpless, without allies, the EV1 were herded up, sequestered, then hauled in covered car transporters to the great killing ground in Mesa, AZ. After the assassination, the remains were melted down, far from the drivers who longed to save them.
没有盟友， EV1被无奈的集中，然后转运到Mesa, AZ的大屠杀地。暗杀发生后，遗体被融化，到目前为止，租用者盼望拯救他们。
Solar Electric Photo-Voltaic (PV) Power is one of the enabling technologies to solve the biggest political problem of the 21st Century: Energy Independence. The other enabling tool is the Plug-in Electric car (EV).
太阳能光电 (PV)能源是21世纪一个最大的解决各方利益的办法：能源**。其他的办法是插入式电动车Plug-in Electric car（ EV ）。
Together, PV-EV allows us to substitute renewable solar energy you can make yourself on a rooftop solar system to replace oil. It's not for everyone, but it's definitely for some! If enough people are able to go PV-EV, we can avoid overseas oil imports and avoid overseas political entanglements with oil dictators. Ordinary individuals can commute using an 80 mph, fun Electric car, charging overnight with cheap, otherwise unused grid power.
With credits from solar rooftop power, live essentially oil-free of the gasoline pump, free of smog checks, oil changes and tune ups. Each morning, the Electric car is full, ready to drive. You never know how much fun an Electric car is until you feel the smooth acceleration from a standing stop, and the joy of driving gas-free.
Solar rooftop electrric power and plug-in Electric cars for Energy Independence now.
There was always a waiting list for the 465 1999 EV1 Electric cars, even though they were only leased and cost $500 per month plus 50 cents per mile. Most on the list did not have a chance to get a car. NO other model was confiscated and destroyed like this, even alleged mistakes like the Corvair and Edsel, which are still on the road and still have car clubs and fans.
一直有人在等候465型1999版 EV1电动车，即使每月租用费用$500，而另每英里行驶成本还要加50美分。这些人的大部分没有机会得到车。其他的车型都没有如这样被收回并销毁，即使被指有一样毛病的Corvair和Edsel ，而这些车目前仍在道路上使用，并且还有成型的车俱乐部和车迷。
Hybrid cars that can not plug in to charge are still tied to the gasoline pump, still require oil changes, smog checks and tune ups. Only a car that plugs in can cut oil dependency.
Hydrogen is a myth not worth waiting for. Compressed Natural Gas is a clean car technology that is here, now. If GM were serious about Fuel Cell cars, it would start by making CNG generally available. Hydrogen cars would need many new power plants to free, compress and store the Hydrogen. The "hydrogen hype" is just a PR campaign to delay battery electric cars.
Electric cars charge up overnight, using off-peak electric power. Electric cars are so efficient, we could easily eliminate more than 40% of our gasoline usage just with existing off-peak electric capacity, as shown on DrivingTheFuture.com.
电动车在夜间充电，用离峰电力。电能也是如此有效率，仅用现有的离峰电力容量，我们就可以很容易减少我们40 ％以上的耗油，具体说明见drivingthefuture.com 。
The weak point of an Electric car is the batteries. GM bought control of the advanced NiMH batteries needed for all plug-in EVs but showed no intention of improving them or perfecting them.
Chevron owns the patent rights on the EV batteries!! What?? Why is this not a surprise?? Read or comment
Toyota, working to meet the Zero Emission Vehicle mandate, set up a production line in 1997 for the "large-format" EV-95 batteries needed for their Toyota RAV4-EV.
丰田，为满足零排放车辆的“强制要求”，在1997年建立了一个生产线，生产丰田RAV4 -电动车需要的"大号"的EV - 95电池。
These EV-95 NiMH batteries, after years of research, were perfected for EVs:
Deep Cycle, no memory effect;
High energy output for acceleration;
Long lifetime, longer than the life of the car -- even a Toyota car.
Toyota's EV-95 batteries are still running Toyota RAV4-EV cars more than 20,000 miles per year, and for over 100,000 miles so far. But no more EV-95 batteries can be made, after Chevron sued Toyota.
丰田的EV - 95电池仍在驱使丰田RAV4-EV车，一年行驶超过20,000英里，至今行驶超过100,000英里。但在雪佛龙控告丰田后，EV - 95电池不再生产。
In 1994, Stan Ovshinsky, the inventor of the NiMH battery and principal of Energy Conversion Devices with the late Dr. Iris Ovshinsky, sold control of the NiMH batteries to a jont venture, GM Ovonic, between GM and his company, with the goal of manufacturing patented NiMH batteries for EVs. Ostensibly, GM was supposed to go into production, and thus, it seemed, perhaps, natural to allow them control of the battery they would, supposedly, be using. In the event, Honda and Toyota used NiMH 4 years prior to GM's final release of a NiMH version of the EV1.
1994年，发明镍氢充电电池的Stan Ovshinsky，和发明主要的能源转换器件的已故博士Iris Ovshinsky，向一家合资公司GM Ovonic出售了镍氢电池专利。其目标是制造专利镍氢电池电动车。表面上，通用汽车公司本来是要进行生产的，因此，让他们控制假定会使用的电池技术似乎也许是很自然的。而实际上，日本本田和丰田汽车采用镍氢电池比通用汽车的最终发放镍氢电池版EV1还要早四年。
But passing control of the batteries to GM proved a fatal mistake for the future of EVs.
GM announced on Oct. 10, 2000 the sale of the worldwide patent rights for the NiMH batteries to Texaco. Six days later, on Oct. 16, 2000, even before the sale was consumated, Texaco then merged with Chevron. The sale of the batteries was finally concluded on July 17, 2001, long after Texaco had become one with Chevron.
Chevron/Texaco received "...GM's 60 percent stake in [NiMH] batteries, and a 20 percent stake in ECD itself...", giving Chevron effective control of NiMH.
Chevron/Texaco收到" … …通用汽车公司在[镍氢电池]上60 ％的股份，以及 ECD 20 ％的股份，… …让Chevron有效控制镍氢电池专利。
On Mar. 6, 2002, just months after inheriting control of NiMH batteries, Chevron's subsidiary filed suit against Toyota, Panasonic, their PEVE joint venture, Sanyo et al.
On December 12, 2001, Chevron's affiliates filed an arbitration demand...with the International Chamber of Commerce...In December 2002, an arbitration agreement...on Nov. 4-19, 2003, the hearing was held, and concluded on Jan. 21, 2004.
2001年12月12日，雪佛龙公司的子公司提起仲裁请求...与国际商会一起… …2002年12月，达成仲裁协议… …2003年11月4日至19日，举行了听证，并在2004年1月21日最终议定。
On July 7, 2004, the settlement agreement ended in complete defeat for Toyota, Matsushita and their joint venture, PEVE. NiMH was only mentioned for "hybrids", those which cannot plug in, and Cobasys, Chevron's unit, became distributor of PEVE batteries, received $20 million licensing fee, in addition to $10 million paid to Energy Conversion Devices.
"Cobasys will also receive royalties through December 31, 2013 on certain NiMH batteries sold by [Toyota] in North America."
" Cobasys也将在2013年12月31日前可以一直对[丰田]在北美地区出售的镍氢电池获得版税" 。
Chevron oil, the successor to Standard Oil of California, thus worked with GM to eliminate the batteries needed for plug-in EVs, similar to how America's small urban commuter railroads were bought up by the same surprising buyers. The railroads were dismantled, the right-of-way lost to the public domain, just as the NiMH batteries are now unavailable to run EVs or plug-in hybrids that can replace our oil addiction and address global warming concerns.
Until we move to plug-in cars and electric trains, any talk of dealing with climate change, decreasing oil use, or getting free of our oil addiction anemia, is a sham.
Chevron's subsidiary sued Toyota, Panasonic and all other battery makers, forcing a settlement agreement and $30,000,000 payment from Toyota to Chevron's subsidiary.
Most importantly, Toyota's NiMh EV-95 production line was closed down, and
No more EV-95 batteries are available for any purchaser at any price.
最重要的是，丰田的镍氢电池EV-95生产线被关闭，并且就算你想出钱，也没有EV - 95电池可供购买，。
Toyota closed down their production line, and the batteries which power the RAV4-EV or the 1999 EV1 are no longer available. Chevron's patent rights don't expire until 2014.
When auto makers, CARB regulators and oil companies claim "the batteries are not ready", they are asking you to ignore the hundreds of 2001, 2002 and 2003 Toyota RAV4-EV still running on EV-95 NiMH batteries, faultlessly performing to the specs needed for plug-in EVs and plug-in hybrids.
当汽车制造商，CARB监管人员与油公司声称： "这种电池没有准备好"，他们都是希望你不理会2001年， 2002年和2003年卖出的数以百计仍在使用EV - 95镍氢电池的丰田RAV4 -电动汽车， 而这些电池完全满足插入式电动车充电式油电混合车的需要。
Don't let them get away with ignoring these real, working batteries, and oil-free cars!
It's not economical to ignore proven batteries in order to do endless "research" on battery technology that is no better than NiMH. They will lie, and say "Nickel is too expensive", but they have no documentation, no facts. Ask them how much of the battery is Nickel, and how much that recycles for. Nickel has not advanced in price much more than other metals, and it's non-toxic, recyclable, and only a small fraction of the cost of the battery.
无视已被证明可用的镍氢电池，对不优于镍氢电池的电池技术做无休止的"研究" ，这是不符合经济原则的。他们会说谎，并且说， "镍太昂贵" ，但是他们没有任何文件，没有任何事实依据。试问他们电池有多大部分是镍，有多少部分可循环使用。镍的价格远远没有超过其他金属，它的无毒性，可回收，对电池来说，只是一小部分的成本。
Rally pics from Feb. 26. Former EV1 drivers continued to offer to purchase their cars for cash for years.
This is a check for $1,700,000 representing the $24,000 residual value
for each of the 77 remaining EV1 6-year old used cars.
GM refused to sell, and continued crushing and destroying the last of the EV1.